What is a torah scroll

what is a torah scroll

Turkish police seize apparent ancient Torah scroll during car search

Dec 21,  · The Torah scroll is a long scroll containing the entire text of the Five Books of Moses, hand-written by a pious scribe in the original Hebrew. It is rolled up around two ornate wooden shafts, attached to either end of the educationcupcake.usted Reading Time: 4 mins. Jan 25,  · • A Torah Scroll is the holiest book within Judaism, made up of the five books of Moses. • There are , letters in a Torah Scroll. • Each page has 42 lines. • The Torah Scroll must be written by a specially trained pious scribe called a sofer. • A sofer must know more than 4, Judaic laws before he begins writing a Torah Scroll. • It takes about a year to write an entire Estimated Reading Time: 4 mins.

Before his death, Moshe wrote down thirteen What is a torah scroll Scrolls in the Holy language. Twelve of them were distributed among the twelve tribes.

The thirteenth, together with the stone Tablets of the Covenant, was placed in the Ark of the Covenant. If anyone tried to change the text of the Torah, the Scroll scrol the Ark of the Covenant would testify against it.

According to the Mishnah, the Jewish kings took the Torah scroll for war. During public toray and periods of drought, the Ark containing the Torah scroll was taken to the square where people were praying. In the Middle Ages, the vow was given by looking at wgat Torah scroll.

The scroll has a special status of holiness. It is treated with i. It is impossible to touch the parchment with your hands, so when reading a special pointer Yad is used.

The Torah scroll cannot be sold, except in special cases, such as the redemption of prisoners, the tuition fee, or the construction of a mikvah.

In the synagogue, the Torah Scroll is stored in the special cabinet Aron Kodesh. When carrying out the Torah on Saturdays, it is customary to decorate a scroll with a crown.

The carrying out of the Torah scroll and its reading are the most solemn part of the divine service in the synagogue. The reading of the Torah occurs in scrpll specific order. Cohen is the first, Levite is the second, after that they summon in order another five Jews.

Being called to the Torah is a great honor. Since the Middle Ages, there is a custom to meet royal persons visiting a community, going towards them with the Torah Scroll. According to the Jewish tradition, the Torah is the only document that contains the word of God and nothing but it. It is considered the most sacred subject for the Jews. Jewish law prescribes that the Torah scrolls, which are publicly read in the synagogue are written by hand.

He must be a religious Jew who can be entrusted with the implementation of numerous laws relating to this sacred work. There are many complex rules governing the exact size of the letters.

The text should be written on parchment made from the skin of a ritually clean animal. So the scribe usually uses a cow, bird feathers, black ink, and straight lines.

Scribes should be immersed acroll the water of the ritual pool before each spelling of the name of God. When Torah scroll is shown at the synagogue, people must stand up.

When the Torah is removed from the Aron Kodesh during the service, the reader of prayer gently presses it to the chest. The Torah weighs a lot. If it is dropped on the floor, tora all the witnesses of this should last all day. When a person carrying the Torah scrolls goes through the synagogue, the Jews kiss the scroll in a special way. They touch the case with their fingers and then kissing these edges or kissing them first and then touching the Torah scroll.

These amazing copies of Torah scrolls look like real ones. The cover of the scroll is often made of soft velvet, embroidered with a traditional pattern, as on the real cover of the Torah. Each of them contains all the text of the Torah, printed on high-quality paper with wooden handles. They are available in various sizes and styles. Torah Scroll Replicas are the perfect gift for any special occasion. Lost Password? Create Account.

Every Jewish community must have at least one Torah scroll The scroll has a special status of holiness. Customs and rites The carrying out of the Torah scroll and its reading are the most solemn part of the divine service in the synagogue.

Toran scribe rewriting the Sefer Torah is called the Soifer He must be a religious Jew who can be entrusted with the implementation of numerous laws relating to this sacred work. Usually, an experienced scribe performs such work for the year When Torah scroll is shown at the synagogue, people must stand up. Torah Scroll Replicas These amazing copies of Torah scrolls look like real ones.

Torah Scroll Replicas. Large torah scroll replica on thick paper imitation parchment Includes torah pointer, breastplate, and zippered plastic protector Great gift for older whhat.

Medium torah what is a torah scroll replica on thick imitation parchment Includes torah pointer, breastplate, and zippered plastic protector Great gift for child. This beautiful sefer torah wrapped how to get popcorn off the cob a velvet How to cook beef intestines is a child's dream come true!

It has a range of meanings. Beautiful Mezuzah with enamel as shown. Comes with 10 Commandments as shown. Each Mezuzah how to get smart in a week with scroll inside in back.

Comes with piece of glue to protect the scroll inside. Scroll inside is replica and not Kosher. We do carry Kosher Klafs of many sizes if you want to buy one contact us please. The Jewish mitzvah to place a mezuzah on the doorpost of the home comes from Deut. Complete Torah Scroll This beautiful sefer torah wrapped in a navy or maroon velvet Mantel is a child's dream come true! Includes a plastic breastplate, torah pointer, and a plastic protector for the Mantel.

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A Torah Scroll is handwritten by a scribe with a feather and special ink on carefully prepared parchment. An authentic Sefer Torah is a mind-boggling masterpiece of labor and skill. Comprising between 62 and 84 sheets ofFile Size: 48KB. Apr 01,  · Eat your heart out, Indiana Jones. Police in Turkey say they have seized a Torah scroll believed to date back at least 2, years — and have arrested five . When a person carrying the Torah scrolls goes through the synagogue, the Jews kiss the scroll in a special way. They touch the case with their fingers and then kissing these edges or kissing them first and then touching the Torah scroll. Torah Scroll Replicas. These amazing copies of Torah scrolls .

Yemenite scrolls of the Law containing the Five Books of Moses the Torah represent one of three authoritative scribal traditions for the transmission of the Torah, the other two being the Ashkenazi and Sephardic traditions that slightly differ. Biblical texts proofread by ben Asher survive in two extant codices the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex , the latter said to have only been patterned after texts proofread by Ben Asher.

The former work, although more precise, was partially lost following its removal from Aleppo in The old line arrangements employed by the early Yemenite scribes in their Torah scrolls are nearly the same as prescribed by ben Asher. Like ben Asher's Masoretic tradition, it also contains nearly all the plene and defective scriptum , as well as the large and small letters employed in the writing of the Torah, a work held by medieval scribes in Israel to be the most accurate of all Masoretic traditions.

The disputes between ben Asher and Ben Naphtali are well-known to Hebrew grammarians. Maimonides' verdict in that dispute is in accordance with ben Asher. The codex that we have relied upon in these matters is the well-known codex in Egypt, comprising twenty-four canonical books, [and] which was in Jerusalem for several years to proof-read the scrolls there from, and all [of Israel] used to rely upon it, since Ben-Asher had proof-read it and scrutinized it for many years, and proof-read it many times, just as they had copied down.

Now, upon it, I relied with regard to the book of the Law that I wrote, according to the rules which govern its proper writing. Maimonides' ruling in this regard eventually caused the Jews of Yemen to abandon their former system of orthography, and during his lifetime most scribes in Yemen had already begun to replace their former system of orthography for that of Ben-Asher.

Unique to Yemenite scrolls, based on what is prescribed in their codices, is that each column concludes with the end of a particular verse and begins with the start of a new verse; never broken in the middle. The average width of each column is approximately four finger-breadths, usually 9. Columns containing the Prosaic Songs are considerably wider to facilitate the writing of the song in its usual format.

For the Prosaic Song Ha'azinu , the first column which contains the song is made ca. For the Prosaic Song of the Sea the column measures approximately 14 centimetres 5.

The sheets of parchment used in making the scroll measure approximately Most are made with full-grain leather Heb. This also gave to the leather a reddish-brown luster. The sheets of parchment were traditionally sewn together with sinews tendons taken from the animal's loins flanks , rather than from the animal's heels the latter being prescribed by Maimonides. There are thirteen orthographic traditions in the first category which are peculiar to the Yemenite tradition and which differ from the traditions borne by other groups.

The Yemenite arrangement has been published in many sources, the most notable of which being that of the last Chief Rabbi of Yemen, Rabbi Amram Qorah. The prevailing view is that if there is found a Torah scroll that has not been written as prescribed in all of the above as bequeathed by the ancients then that same scroll is invalid lowered in sanctity and is considered as merely one of the codices Heb.

Rabbi Yitzhak Razhabi has noted that in the Yemenite Jewish tradition there are over peculiar types of letters special forms of certain characters in the Torah and which have been largely adhered to by Yemenite scribes. The Yemenite tradition of writing the Otiyyot Gedolot Large Letters in the Torah differs in some respects from other communities, and follows the traditions as they received them from the scribes of old. Rabbi Yihye Bashiri had, apparently, culled these other traditions from the writings of the kabbalists and other rabbinic scholars outside of Yemen, and wished to incorporate them in the Yemenite tradition, but which practices had never taken hold in Yemen.

In other places, however, the Yemenites have preserved the practice of making oddly-shaped letters, where the tradition called for doing so. Jewish scribes have preserved a carefully guarded tradition regarding the line arrangements of certain verses, namely, which words are to be written at the forefront of a line, and which words are to be written at the end of the same.

The line arrangements of Shirat Ha'azinu Deut. The column on the sheet of parchment containing the prosaic song Ha'azinu is made wider than other columns, so as to make room for the poem's layout, written in the format of sixty-seven double half-columns, meaning to say, spaces are made between the verses which appear to descend in two columns.

The "Song of the Sea" Shirat ha-Yam is traditionally made on lines appearing as half-bricks set over whole bricks. Rabbi Meir ben Todros Halevi ca. He therefore changed its order, by his own admittance. The Yemenite Jews still maintain the old tradition in the line arrangements of the Song of the Sea , following Ben Asher's format in the words that are to begin each line, as well as in the words which are to conclude each line.

Penkower, a specialist of Textual Transmission of the Bible and the Masorah at the Department of the Bible in Bar-Ilan University , who wrote: "It's worthy of adding that in the Yemenite manuscripts of the Torah the arrangement of lines in the Prosaic Song of the Sea is exactly like the arrangement found in the Aleppo Codex, including the last two lines and the lines that are before the Song and that are after it.

While all communities will write the Song of the Sea Shirat ha-Yam on thirty lines, the format which concludes the song has been slightly altered in some communities due to the doubt raised by Rabbi Meir Abulafia ben Todros of Spain.

Todros Halevi's emendation. This anomaly may be attributed to the fact that the Yemenite copyists in their transmission of the masorah made use of several ancient works, and perhaps even their own ancient Torah scrolls, just as they did when conveying the plene and defective scripta of the textus receptus which almost completely agreed with that of masorete, Ben-Asher — yet, without the aid or assistance of Maimonides who left no indication on how these words should be written, or just as they did also with the irregular letters written in the Torah, although here, too, Maimonides gave no indication about which of these letters should be made differently.

Since the Leningrad Codex, a codex also proofread by Ben-Asher, stands at variance here with the Aleppo Codex's entry, one might only speculate if Ben-Asher ever totally agreed with everything written in those codices.

Moreover, the Treatise Sofrim [] which brings down a list of words in the Torah that are written as one word, but read as two words e.

Mordechai Breuer makes note of the fact that "versions in the Talmud differ in many instances from the versions of the Masoretes see, for example, Gilyon ha-Shas , the comments of R. Aqiba Eiger on the margin of the Talmud, Shabbat 55b. Accordingly, Talmudic versions are of no relevance here; perhaps they reflect the 'correct' or 'original' text of the Bible, but they are non-Masoretic by definition, and they have nothing to do with the uniform version which was accepted by the Tiberian Masoretes.

Such was also the practice in Yemen. In the Yemenite tradition, the six-letters of the mnemonic device account for only two verses in the entire Torah where the column begins in the middle of a verse Exo.

Maimonides , summarizing the different orthographic traditions, wrote: "Authorities on the Masora In the days of Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon — , the Jews of Yemen addressed thirteen questions unto him, one of which concerning the interstices the Open and Closed sections of the Torah as prescribed by his father, Maimonides , and what to do with a tradition that differs, to which he replied: "We see that there are many differences between the scribes in the matter of the Open and Closed sections, while the books that are in Israel greatly differ in this matter, and we have already seen the exponents of our laws, of blessed memory, who have taken positions in each of these works, which thing has its rightful place, since we do not possess the Book of the Temple court, which [if we had] we could meticulously learn from it about the matter, nor is there regarding this matter a tradition whereupon everyone agrees, to the extent that we could actually disqualify whatsoever contradicts it.

Nevertheless, the right thing is to scrupulously attend to the matter, just as it appears in the Composition i. Mishne Torah , in the Book of Ahavah , but whatsoever is found to be different from it, no one is to give judgment concerning it that it is invalid, unless it is different from all the books that are in existence. In Yemen, large goats 2 yrs. The same tannin substance and its use in treating leather for sacred scrolls is mentioned by Maimonides These leaves, being astringent, have the same function as gall.

The water and leaves, however, required changing after seven or eight days, and the leather needed to be turned over daily. In some places, the fleshy-side of the leather being the side that is written upon was treated with a fine application of castor oil , taken directly from the bean of the castor oil plant Ricinus communis , and which application is known to give added elasticity and durability to the leather.

According to Amram Qorah , the way in which leather was prepared in Yemen for use in writing a Torah scroll was as follows:. An excessive amount of gall was seen as detrimental to the ink, therefore, used sparingly, as also too many pomegranate rinds will cause the ink to fade.

The traditional writing instrument in Yemen was the cane reed calamus , rather than the feathered quill. Just as there is a unique style of writing associated with Ashkenazi scrolls, and another style for Sephardic scrolls, so too is there a style of writing that is peculiar to Yemenite scribes of the previous centuries.

Each community, however, makes use of the square Hebrew script. In the older Torah scrolls of Yemenite provenance, there was not a practice among scribes to write the Hebrew letters with their Tagim , since the accurate tradition of doing so had long been lost.

The manner in which Jewish scribes made certain Hebrew characters has evolved throughout the years in Yemen. Rabbi Yosef Qafih , commenting on Maimonides' Mishne Torah , responds to the old practice and goes to great lengths to show that such letters, had they been written in such a way, should not be disqualified, although the custom in Israel has now changed.

These dot-like impressions in the leather were made so as to resemble an inverted segol one dot on top of two dots. Two diagonal stamp marks were made above the word whose reading called for it to be read with a zarqa.

Some have questioned the validity of marking a Torah scroll in this way, but the sages of Yemen have explained its validity by saying that extraneous markings that are made in the leather without ink are permitted. Yemenite Torah scrolls traditionally had also the additional feature where the top corners of each leather sheet of parchment were folded backwards, immediately following the leather's treatment and before the actual writing.

The left and right margins of each sheet of parchment were made to a standard width of one-fingerbreadth ca. The Torah case Heb. The entire wooden box was fitted tightly with a thickly woven decorative cloth, replete with 3 to 5 buttons with matching loops. The top of the box was made with slits wherein they inserted protruding staves for carrying the decorative silver finials Heb. Yaakov Sapir — , a Lithuanian Jewish scholar from Jerusalem, was commissioned by the Jerusalem Rabbinate and traveled to Egypt, to Yemen and to India between the years to In , he visited the Jewish community in Yemen , publishing an account of his travels soon thereafter in a book entitled, Iben Sapir , perhaps one of the most momentous travelogues ever to have been written in that century, and where he describes the life of the Jewish community there.

He also described the Torah scrolls and codices had in Yemen and their peculiar tradition of orthography, an excerpt of which follows. And lo, in their books of the Torah there are to be found several differences in defective and plene letters , for example: minnaso Gen. And I saw that all their ancient books were [written] in this way. I do recall my faults this day. When I had taken with me a scroll of the Torah [written] in the handwriting of the scriveners of Yemen, and when I had proofread it, I found in it the differences that I formerly mentioned, as well as other [changes] — besides that which can be attributed to scribal error, and I corrected it after the manner of our own books.

Then when I happened to be, afterwards, in Paris during [the month of] Tishri, anno mundi CE , I saw a book in the library of that great personage, the savant and honorable teacher and Rabbi, Rabbi Hertz Ginsburg may his light shine , which [library] stood under the supervision of my beloved friend, the wise and illustrious Rabbi, [even] our teacher the Rabbi, S.

Zacks may his light shine , a most dear manuscript made by the Rabbi [who is known as] the Meiri , of blessed memory, [and which book was entitled], Kiryat Sefer. Its name is derived from [its content, which treats on] all the laws governing the scroll of the Law, how it ought to be written, and how read, therein showing all of the defective [letters], and plene [letters], [b] open sections and closed sections, [etc.

He has withal done far more than what could ever have been expected, whether it were of any man who came before him, or who should come after him. Now I shall copy here, in short, an outline of the matters from one of the chapters, being useful for the purport [of our discourse], and whose words are as follows:.

Hillel [h] had written, and from which they would proofread the texts of all the scrolls. Now I saw some of them i. And when the books of Rabbeinu Moshe i. Maimonides , of blessed memory came amongst them and they saw his tradition of orthography [k] in this regard, they sent to him i.

And so, I sent to Marseilles , to the most erudite man [there], Samuel Ibn Tibbon , [l] the physician, and I asked him to send me an [accurate] account of the closed and open sections from the book [of the Law] that was copied from the book [of the Law] belonging to that Rabbi i. Maimonides that came with him to Marseilles, and which said Rabbi may his memory be blessed had signed in his own handwriting; as also that which I, myself, had written down from the book that was no longer before me , I am Moshe, the son of Rabbi Maimon the Sepharadi.

And so did he do, sending them to me with due speed, and I found in the copy of the writing, etc. Now, behold! They are written in this [leafed] booklet which is being sent to you, etc. Likewise, I have written for you the lay-out of the [prosaic] song Ha'azinu [o] in two categories: one, containing the names of words that come at the beginning of each line; the other, containing the names of words that come at the end of each line.

Now there are altogether sixty-seven lines [in the prosaic song Ha'azinu ], just as it is found in my handwritten Bible Codex, and in [copies of] Maimonides of [those made by the] early exponents of our laws… … [Signed]: From him that has been afflicted with reproof of instruction, not with whips, per se , but with scorpions, until he was compelled to confess his sorrow unto many — perchance they will seek mercy upon him from Him who has mercy; [I], who writes to his friends and companions, Meir Halevi, the son of R.

And, there, the Rabbi who is the Meiri , of blessed memory, writes more, [ viz. Meir ha-Levi b. Todros Abulafia , c. Unto here we have brought down his words. I have found [and] seen in this [book], Kiryat Sefer , exactly as it is found written in the scrolls of Yemen! And so, in vain have I erased and made corrections. Now if I had seen it beforehand, I would not have touched it [with my own] hand!

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